The septennate or seventh year, during which the land is to lie fallow, and the celebration of the fiftieth year after seven Sabbatical cycles. 4), though Ibn Ezra thinks it signifies the transfer of properties (comp. When the shemiṭṭah year 5649 (= 1888-89) approached, the question was submitted to the chief rabbis in Europe and Palestine. Ezra sanctified Palestine in the seventh year of the second entrance, after the sixth year of Darius, when the Temple was dedicated (Ezra vi. The Second Temple stood 420 years, and was destroyed, like the First, in the 421st year, on the closing of the shemiṭṭah ('Ar. There is another version of the Talmudic rule mentioned above, namely, to "add two years to or deduct five years from" the number of years since the destruction ('Ab. Maimonides gives the date of a shemiṭṭah year occurring in his time as the year 1107 from the destruction of the Temple, 1487 of the Seleucidan era, 4936 of Creation (= 1175 ; "Yad," Shemiṭṭah we-Yobel, x.As regards the latter, the Hebrew term "yobel" refers to the blast of the shofar on the Day of Atonement announcing the jubilee year (comp. Rabbi Isaac Elhanan Spector was inclined to be lenient, and advocated a nominal sale of the land to a non-Jew and the employment of non-Jewish laborers during shemiṭṭah. The First and the Second Temple, the Talmud says, were destroyed "on the closing of the Sabbatical year" ("Moẓa'e Shebi'it"). 4); i.e., he begins the cycle with theyear following that of the destruction. The law for the jubilee year has not this provision. In post-exilic bṭimes the jubilee was entirely ignored, though the strict observance of the shemiṭṭah was steadily insisted upon. 304), explains the relaxation in the observance in European countries as due to the fact that the rabbinical extension was originally for the purpose "that the law of shemiṭṭah may not be forgotten," and that it was apparently intended to apply to Palestine proper and its neighboring countries, Babylon and Egypt, but not elsewhere. 92) decides that the shemiṭṭah defense is a very weak one; consequently a creditor is believed without an oath when he says that he has lost the prosbul.
Advice: The Bible has nothing specifically to say about single Christian women dating.
In Biblical times marriages were arranged by fathers, but the Bible has some principles that would apply to that question.
verse 10), indicating the compulsory restoration of hereditary properties (except houses of laymen located in walled cities) to the original owners or their legal heirs, and the emancipation of all Hebrew servants whose term of six years is unexpired or who refuse to leave their masters when such term of service has expired (Gen. The shemiṭṭat ḳarḳa'ot, however, has been generally observed in Palestine; and during the shemiṭṭah year the Jews of the Holy Land eat only of the products grown in the transjordanic districts (Schwartz, "Tebu'at ha-Areẓ," ed. The Jewish periodicals, especially "Ha-Meliẓ," strenuously objected to enforcing the law of shemiṭṭah upon the colonists. The first cycle of shemiṭṭah began with the sanctification of Ezra. The Talmud gives as a rule for finding the year of shemiṭṭah to add one year and divide by seven the number of years since the destruction of the Second Temple, or to add 2 for every 100 years and divide the sum by seven ('Ab. The difference among the Jewish authorities as to the correct shemiṭṭah year is due to the varied interpretation of the words "closing of shebi'it," as meaning either the last year of the cycle or the year after the cycle; also as to the beginning of the exilic shemiṭṭah from the year when the destruction of the Temple occurred, or from the year after.
So important was the law regarding the jubilee that, like the Decalogue, it was ascribed to the legislation on Mount Sinai (Lev. The law provides that one may cultivate his field and vineyard six years, but "in the seventh year shall be . The fiftieth year, i.e., that following the last year of seven Sabbatical cycles, is the jubilee; during it the land regulations of the Sabbatical year are to be observed, as is also the commandment "ye shall return every man unto his possession" (ib. The general term for the Sabbatical cycle is "shabua'" = "septennate" (Sanh. The majority of rabbis hold that the jubilee year was an intercalation, and followed the seventh Sabbatical year, making two fallow years in succession. They adduce this theory from the plain words of the Law to "hallow the fiftieth year," and also from the assurance of God's promise of a yield in the sixth year sufficient for maintenance during the following three years, "until the ninth year, until her fruits come in" (Lev. The principal reasons seem to have been that the fixed date of payment, the guaranty attached, and the terminology of the present-day notes abrogate the law of shemiṭṭah. The leaders of the movement, who had the interest of the colonists at heart and feared that the shemiṭṭah might jeopardize their existence, claimed that the law is now obsolete.
That the Sabbatical year was observed during the existence of the Second Temple is evident from the history of the Maccabees (I Macc. Moses Isserles adds, however, that the majority of Jewish authorities in Germany are indifferent to or ignore the custom of the shemiṭṭah.
The Mishnah includes in the examination of witnesses questions as to dates, in giving which there must be specified the Sabbatical year, the year, month, week, day, and hour (Sanh. 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, mentions the shemiṭ-ṭat ḳarḳa'ot and yobel (evidently considering the law obsolete); but both of them refer to the shemiṭ-ṭat kesafim and prosbul (Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, § 67), which they claim are operative both in and out of Palestine.
It was to come into force after the Israelites should be in possession of Palestine: "When ye come into the land which I give you" (ib.). a Sabbath for the Lord," during which one shall neither sow nor reap as hitherto for his private gain, but all members of the community—the owner, his servants, and strangers—as well as domestic and wild animals, shall share in consuming the natural or spontaneous yield of the soil. There is this difference, however, that loans are not annulled before the expiration (= "the end") of every seven years, as the Mosaic law (ib.) provides, whereas the land-release, the shemiṭṭat ḳarḳa'ot, begins with the seventh year. There is a difference of opinion in the Talmud as to whether the jubilee year was included in or excluded from the forty-nine years of the seven cycles. Judah ha-Nasi, however, contends that the jubilee year was identical with the seventh Sabbatical year (R. The shemiṭṭat kesafim is equally relaxed in Palestine to-day. Since the Zionist movement began to encourage agriculture in Palestine, the observance of shemiṭṭah has become a problem for solution.
The regulations of the Sabbatical year include also the annulment of all monetary obligations between Israelites, the creditor being legally barred from making any attempt to collect his debt (Deut. Technically the Talmud distinguishes the Sabbatical year for the release or quitclaim of loans as "shemiṭṭah," more distinctly "shemiṭṭat kesafim" (money-release), in contradistinction to "shebi'it" (seventh) or "shemiṭṭat ḳarḳa'ot" (land-release). Several reasons are advanced for these laws: Fifty- and Forty-nine-Year Cycles. This, however, is only according to a rabbinical enactment (Tos. He rules, as regards the enforcement of the shemiṭṭat kesafim, that the bet din should be guided by the prevailing Jewish custom in the particular country.
Still later they prohibited the sowing of grain from Passover, and the planting of trees from Pentecost preceding the shemiṭṭah year, in order not to derive any benefit from the fruits bearing in that year (Sheb. On the other hand, this bankruptcy law checked all business enterprises which the Jews were engaged in after they had largely abandoned agricultural pursuits. The shemiṭṭat kesafim was undoubtedly intended for the poor debtor, though the rich man also might take advantage of the general law. The Rabbis nevertheless desired that "the law of the shemiṭṭah shall not be forgotten" (Giṭ. Maimonides, in his responsa, rules that shemiṭṭah is not operative against orphans, but that all other debts are wiped out.