The Ancient Greeks were the first Europeans to read and write with an Alphabet, which eventually led to all modern European languages.
The Ancient Greek Language has different theories of origin; firstly some believe it migrated with the Proto-Greek speakers into the Greek Peninsula, dating from 2500BC to 1700 BC.
Homer's poetry of the Iliad and Odyssey were written in a sort of literary Ionic with some borrowed words from the other dialects.
Classical Literature that survived is written in Attic Greek, this includes extant text of Plato and Aristotle .
Hellenistic Greek 'Koine' (meaning Common, also known as Biblical Greek) came from the colonization of Asian Minoans to Egypt and to the Middle East; this is where the language evolved into multiple dialects.
There were three major dialects in ancient Greece, Aeolic, Doric and Ionic.
Each of these were from different tribes, the Aeolians lived in the islands of the Aegean, the Dorians, from the Greek coast of Peloponnesus, including Crete, Sparta and other parts of West Coast Asia Minor.
Greek lyrical poetry and Ancient Greek Tragedy was written in Doric.
Attic Greek was a sub dialect of Ionic that belonged to the language of the Athenians for centuries.
Alexander the Great was instrumental in combining these dialects to make the 'Koine' dialect.
The Ionians settled in the West coast of Asia Minor including the Smyma.
The first surviving script for writing Greek was the Linear B discovered in 1953. When Mycenaean civilization was destroyed, there was a period of roughly five hundred years, when writing was either not used, or either that there was nothing that survived.